INPUT METHODS AND IMPLEMENTATION
Source data are input into the system in a variety of ways. The following media and devices are as follows :
- Keyboard : Keyboard data entry remains the most common form of output. It requires the most data editing because people make mistakes keying data from source
- Mouse : A mouse is a pointing device used in conjunction with graphical user The mouse has made it’ easy to navigate online forms and click on commands and input options.
- Touch Screens : Ari emerging technology that will greatly impact input design in the near future is the touch screen display. Such displays are common in handheld and palm-top computers that are finding their way into countless information system
- Point of Scale : Point-of-scale (POS) terminals have replaced old-fashioned cash These terminals capture data at the point of sale and provide time saving ways to enter data, perform translational calculations, and produce some output.
- Optical Mark : Optical mark recognition (OMR) technology for input has existed for several decades. It is primarily batch processing-oriented. The classic example is the optical mark forms used for objective-based questions. The technology is also useful in surveys and questionnaires or any other application where the number of possible data values in relatively limited and highly structured.
- Optical character recognition (OCR) : Optical character recognition (OCR) requires that the user or customer carefully handwrites input data on a business form. If the letters and numbers are properly scribed; an OCR reader can process the forms without human intervention.
- Electromagnetic Transmission : Electromagnetic ADC technology is based on the use of radio frequency to identify physical objects. This technology involves attaching a tag and antenna to the physical object that is to be tracked. The tag contains memory that is used to identify the object being generated by the reader. This identification technology is becoming very popular in applications that involves tracking physical objects that are out of sight and on the move.
- Biometric : Biometric ADC technology is based on unique human characteristics or traits. For example, an individual can be identified by his or her unique fingerprint, voice pattern, or pattern of certain veins (retina or wrist). Biometric ADC systems consist of sensors that capture an individual’s characteristics or traits, digitize the image pattern, and then compare the image to stored patterns for identification.
Biometric ADC is popular because it offers the most accurate and reliable means for identification. This technology is particularly popular for systems that require security access.
Design of Output and Control
Output presents information to system users. Outputs are the most visible component of a working information system. They act as the basis for the users’ and management’s final assessment of the system’s value. Today, most outputs are designed by rapidly constructing prototypes. These prototypes may be simple computer-generated mock-ups with dummy data, or they may be generated from prototype databases such as Microsoft Access, which can be rapidly constructed and populated with test data. These prototypes are fully functional.
Outputs of a system can take form. The most common are reports, displays on screen, printed forms etc. The outputs also vary in terms of their contents, type of stationary, frequency and timings etc. Besides, due consideration also need to be given as to who will use the output and for what purpose. All these points must be kept in mind while designing output so that the objectives of the systems are met in the best possible way.
One way to classify output is according to their distribution inside or outside the organization and the people who read and use them.
Internal outputs are intended for the system owners and system users within an organization. Internal outputs support either day-to-day business operations or management monitoring and decision-making.
The three basic subclasses of internal outputs are as follows :
- Detailed reports present information with little or no filtering or restrictions. Example of detailed reports would be a detailed listing of all customer accounts, orders, or products in inventory. Some detailed reports are historical and others are regulatory, that is, required by government.
- Summary reports categorize information for managers who do not want to wade through details. The data for summary reports is typically categorized and summarized to indicate trends and potential problems.
- Exception reports filter data before it is presented to the managers as Exception reports include only exceptions to some condition or standard. Example of an exception report is a report that identifies items that are low in stock.
External Outputs are intended for customer, suppliers, partners, and regulatory agencies. They usually conclude or report on business transactions. Examples of external outputs are invoices, account statements, paychecks, course schedule, airline tickets, boarding passes, telephone bills, and purchase orders.