Once a data has been collected it is must to bring the information in an organized & evaluated & conclusion drawn for preparing a report to the used for final review and approval. There are many tools, which are used for organizing & analysis on collected information. The tools used for that purpose are input/output analysis, decision tables & structured chart.
This analysis identifies the elements that are related to the input/output of the given system. The data flow diagram & flowcharts are the best way to show the input/output analysis.
It is the best way to show the input output analysis it enables the user to focus on the logic of the system & developed feasible alternatives. The circle represents the processing point with in the system. The square are department or no of people involved in the system the major’s steps in the billing process are extracting the customer account, applying for renewable, preparing the bill processing the payment and account for cash receipt.
This table described the data flow within the system. It is used when a complex decision logic can’t be represented clearly in the flow chart as a documenting tool they provide a simpler form of data analysis then the flow chart. It is easy to follow communication devices between technical & non-technical person:
There are several variation in the working tool of structured chart . the analyst start with single input /output processing/ out put chart, locate the module associated with I/O processing.
REVIEW OF WRITTEN DOCUMENTS
The documentation which is prepare to developed the new system its include forms, records, reports, manuals etc. its organized & evaluated during the development of the system. This document helps in determining to what extends they are met by the present system. The day to day problems may have force to make the changes that are not reflected in the manual. Some time people have a tendency to ignore procedure & find short cuts to get the out-puts of given problem.
Regarding adjusting system the analyst need to find out how they are feeling forms & how useful they are to the user, what type of changes required by the user & how it is easy to read.
The another type of fact finding method which is used by the system analyst is on-site observation. The purpose of on-site observation is to get a close study of the possible requirement for the system.
For this purpose the analyst follows the set of rule’s which he/she used whenever he/she do the observation at the site.
On-site is the most difficult fact finding technique. It request intrusion in to the user’s area & can cause adverse reaction by the user staff if it is no handled properly. The analyst observes the physical layout of the system, location & movement of the people & also the workflow. The change in behavior of the user or user’s staff provide an experience analyst with clues that can help to put the behavior observe in perspective.
The following question’s can be used to take a decision about on-site observation:
- what behavior can be observe that can’t be described in any other way?
- What data can be obtained more easily & also reliable by the observation ?
- What assurance can be given that the observation process is not seriously affecting the system, being observed ?
If on-site observation is to be done properly in complex situation, it can be time consuming. The proper sampling procedure must be used to a certain the stability of the behavior being observed.
Interview & questionnaires: – another type of fact-finding is the personal interview & questionnaires. In either type of .methods, heavy reliance is placed on the interviewee report’s for information about the job, present system or experience the quality of the response is judged in terms of its reliability & validity. The reliability means that the information gathered is dependable enough to be use for making decision about the system. The validity means that the question’s asked are so worded as to elicited the intended information. So the reliability& validity of the information collected depend on the design of the interview or questionnaires.
In an interview, since the analyst or interviewer & the person interviewed meet face to face, there is an opportunities for greater flexibility in collected information.
Once the project is initiated the analyst begin to learn about the settings the existing system & the physical process related to the revised system. For eg. Its important to understand structure of the bank, who runs it, who report’s to whom in the safe deposit area. The relationship between the safe deposit & the teller line, accounting & customer service. The nature , frequency & level of interaction between the staff & the department . it could be reorganized the staff to get the better customer service. Therefore analyst should prepare origination chart the list of function’s required along with the people who performed them.
Fact finding technique: analyst began to collect the information on the existing system or making a new system’s output, input & cost. The tool use in collection of information are :
- conducting interview of the user’s,
- on site observation,
- review of written documems.
The initiation stage determines the nature and scope of the development. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’s needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them.
The initiation stage should include a cohesive plan that encompasses the following areas:
- Study analyzing the business needs in measurable goals.
- Review of the current operations.
- Conceptual design of the operation of the final product.
- Equipment requirement.
- Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget.
- Select stake holders, including users, and support personnel for the project.
- Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule.
- In most cases, the design, purchase and implementation of a GIS( Geological Information System) is a significant commitment in terms of personnel time and money
- it is extremely important to understand the issues involved in the development of GISs
- these issues will ultimately affect the efficiency and value of the installed GIS
- it is possible to identify several stages in the development of a GIS
- these can be characterized in several ways
- the following general outline serves as an organizing framework for the next 6 units:
- development progresses through the following stages
- note that these are not necessarily sequential and some may operate concurrently with others
- Problem recognition and technological awareness
- a necessary beginning point
- Developing management support
- critical to the initiation and success of the project
- Project definition
- includes identifying the current role of spatial information in the organization, the potential for GIS, determining needs and products, writing the proposal
- System evaluation
- includes reviewing hardware and software options, conducting benchmark tests, pilot studies and cost benefit analysis
- System implementation
- includes completion of a strategic plan, system development and startup, design and creation of the database, securing on-going financial and political support
- this unit looks at the two least formal and unstructured initial stages: needs awareness and building management support
- Problem Recognition/Technological Awareness
- in order for an organization to become interested in acquiring a GIS, someone or some group within the organization: 1. must perceive that the methods by which they are currently storing, retrieving and using information are creating problems 2. must be aware of the capabilities of GIS technology
- Aronoff (1989) suggests six problems that prompt GIS interest
- spatial information is out of date or of poor quality
- g. often land information documents (maps and lists) are seriously outdated and questions regarding the current situation cannot be answered without digging through a stack of “updates” since the last major revisions
- spatial data is not stored in standard formats
- g. a city’s parcel maps will often vary in quality from one area to another
- one area may have been –flown” and mapped using aerial photography at 1:1000 scale some years ago, but updated by hand drafting
- other areas may have been mapped by photographically enlarging 1:24,000 topographic maps, or city street maps of unknown quality, and hand drafting parcel boundaries
- maps may have been reproduced by methods which introduce significant errors, e.g. photocopy
- several departments collect and manage similar spatial data
- this may result in different forms of representation, redundancies and related inefficiencies in the collection and management of the data
- data is not shared due to confidentiality and legal concerns
- analysis and output capabilities are inadequate
- new demands are made on the organization that cannot be met within the data and technological systems currently available.
- changes in technological infrastructure
- improvements in technological capability
- in GIS: improved hardware, software, peripherals; better access to existing digital datasets, e.g. TIGER files
- declining price-performance ratios
- in GIS: impact of introduction of 286- and 386-based PCs, workstations, reduction in cost of mainframes and minis
- improved packaging of technical components to perform useful tasks
- in GIS: better (more friendly, more versatile) user interfaces, better applications software
- concerted marketing efforts of suppliers
- advertising creates an aura of necessity
- in GIS: hard not to go with the current trend, in spite of the fact that GIS advertising is probably low-key relative to other areas of EDP
- direct contact of salespeople with potential buyers
- in GIS: demonstrations at trade shows, presentations at conferences by vendors
- long-term strategies of technology suppliers
- selective phase-outs – vendor drops support of existing system to encourage new investment
- price reductions or outright donations to universities to raise students’ familiarity with product
- low-cost or cost-free pilot studies offered by vendors at potential customer’s. site
- interchange – at present, there are high costs to conversion from one GIS vendor’s system to another’s – customers are “locked in”
- endemic demand for accomplishing routine tasks
- need for faster and more accurate data handling in report generation, queries, map production, analysis
- society’s appetite for information is unlimited
- in GIS, there is no upper limit to need for spatial data for decision-making
- there is no totally satisfactory minimum level of accuracy for data
- more accurate data always means better decisions
- “keeping current” with technology
- maintaining systems on which the organization has become dependent
- affective demand
- perceived need among organizational actors to exploit the political, entertainment and other potentials of the technology
- in GIS: GIS technology is impressive in itself – high quality, color map output, 3D displays, scene generation – GIS output may be perceived to have greater credibility than hand-drawn products
Collecting Information on GIS
- once the need for GIS is recognized, an individual or group may begin gathering information on GIS in order to develop a management proposal
- information will need to be collected on:
- the status of existing GIS projects
- the direction the GIS industry is moving
- the potential applications of GIS in the organization
- sources of information include:
- personnel within the company
- “missionaries” or GIS proponents may have familiarity through educational background, external contacts
- industry consultants, system vendors, conversion service companies will be very willing to provide information
- industry organizations such as AM/FM International or American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) are excellent sources a growing number of newsletters and magazines are being marketed within the GIS industry
- a useful mechanism is a Request for Information (RFI)
- sent by the company to all known vendors of GIS software
- should ask for:
- general company information
- system capabilities
- hardware and software requirements
- customer references
- general functional capabilities
- example applications
- customer support – training and maintenance programs
- general pricing information
- site visits to operating GIS projects are useful
- can observe the daily operations of the project gain insight from project personnel abbut system performance and support
The questionnaires are special purpose documents that allow a analyst to collect information & opinion from respondent. The Questionnaires is used when there is impossible to conduct to interview all the desired people involved in a systcln.
This.is a more structure & formal methods of collecting data, but may be only viable option where there are large no of dispersed users. Questionnaires are made of question’s about information sought by the analyst. The Questionnaires send to the user & the analyst analyzes replies. The advantage of Questionnz ..)s are relatively cheap, particularly when there is.a scattered group of users and operators. The respondent feel greater confidence in anonymity of a Questionnaires then in that of an interview. In an interview the analyst usually knows the user staff by name, job function or any other identification. With Questionnaire, respondent give opinion without any fear that the answer will not be connected to their names if so desired.
TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
There are two types of Questionnaires :
- Structured Questionnaires
- Unstructured Questionnaires
- Structured Questionnaires : Structured questionnaires respondent has to select from possible option’s & the range of answer is limited structured Question’s, for eg. (A) multiple choice; (b) selection on ranking scale; (c) selection of rating; (d) fill in the blanks.
- Unstructured Questionnaires : In this type of Questionnaires respondent opinion are asked. The Unstructured Questionnaires need more analysis & may or may not give the type of information sought. But they may however give better insight into the problems, as they are open ended & explanatory.
MIS (Management Information System)
The MIS is the planning for information system development with in the framework of the organization. We can view the MIS through two dimension : (1) the time horizon dimension specifies whether is short range, which is tantamount to the MIS yearly plan , midterm, or long range . (2) the focus dimension tells whether the primary concern is strategic, managerial or operational.
The MIS planning is an orderly approach that determines the basic objective for the user to achieve, the strategies & policies ready to achieve the objectives and the tactical plan to implement the strategies . once the MIS objective are set, the MIS policies are defined :
As a guideline to be use in carryout strategy.
The most critical phase of managing System project ‘s planning. In system investigation we need a master plan detailing the steps to be taken. The fact finding is the formal process of initial investigation that’s includes interviews, meetings, questionnaires, sampling & other techniques required in this process this is also called information gathering or data collection process. To identify the need for new information system & launching an investigation process & feasibility studies is a important part of developing a new system which is supported by the management.
Planning information system in business has become a increasingly important during the paSt decades as computer system are becoming integral to business operation, top management is paying more attention to their development. Due to that there is growing needs for formal, long range planning with information system that are complex, require month’s or a year to complete the system the objective are to map out the development of major system’s and reduce the no’s of small, isolated system to be developed & maintained. Proper planning for information system ensure that the role played by the system will match with the requirement of the organization
The interviews are the fact finding techniques where the system analyst collect the information form an individual the respondent or generally current user’s of the exiting system or potential user of the proposed system. The respondent may be manager or any other employee who provided data for the proposed system.
The advantage of interview is to allow the analyst to discover area of misunderstanding, unrealistic expectation & even indication of resistance to the proposed system.
TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
There are two types of interviews:
Unstructured interviews is an approach in which the question & corresponding responses are open & ended. Interviewer’s can asked question which may not be related to the objective.
The advantage of the unstructured interview is to produce information about area’s that overlooked or not thought to be important.
Structured interview in this interview the interviewer has specific set’s of question to be asked from the interviewee. All this question are prepared in advance & the answer are noted. The advantage of structured interview to ensure the uniform wording of question for all respondent’s. it also make easy to administer & evaluate the answer. The success of an interview depends on the on the skill of the interviewer and on his or her prior preparation for the interview.
Planning for interview :- the main objective of interviewing a user is to obtained both quantitative & qualitative data . for that , interview must be planed in advance for this purpose the following point should be kept in mind.
- The objective & purpose of interview should be clear.
- The purpose of the meeting should clearly explained to all participant so that relevant document & information can be supplied in advance.
- The agenda of the interview should be told in advance.
- The analyst should always obtained the appropriate manager’s consent before interviewing the staff.